GhPython in Rhino WIP ships with an all-Rhino Python compiler that can be used to create .Net compiled assemblies containing compiled instructions. Unlike other methods that are based on embedding a Python code string in a C# component, this speeds up code execution and makes reverse engineering more difficult.
There are two options for the process of making a component, #1 is extremely simplified and #2 is more advanced. The component is able to pick up names, descriptions and help from the original Grasshopper component, and turn it into an executable dll file.
To perform this operation, the compiler makes heavy use of the facilities provided by clr.CompileModules(), which is a IronPython module devoted to creation of compiled assemblies, and is also what pyc.py in IronPython uses to produce standalone executable files.
Note: this is for Rhino WIP #6.0.16313.01411 and greater!
1. Compiling a single component in an assembly with the wizard
We will start by compiling a single component with the all-automated wizard.
1.1. For this sample, we will start by placing a GhPython component on the canvas, and by setting the first hint to Point3d. The compiler will write code that is dependent on type hints.
1.2. Then we can remove an input for this sample. We do not need it. The compiler will write code that is dependent on the amount of inputs and outputs. We also remove the “out” output.
1.2.1. You need to zoom in to see the "-" (minus) control.
1.3. Then we can rename the input to “P” for this sample. This will have an influence on the way we write code. We and the compiler will have to write code that is dependent on the naming of inputs and outputs.
1.3.1. Right-click to see this context menu.
1.4. Next, we will write the code that forms our logic for this component. We can provide the user with a good amount of information by placing docstrings at the beginning of our module, and then we can write code that references our variables. Here is the full text written in the image below.
"""Draws a graphic symbol parallel to world XYZ showing orientations. Inputs: P: The point where the symbol should be drawn Output: X: The symbol, drawn as three lines""" __author__ = "piac" import rhinoscriptsyntax as rs from Rhino.Geometry import Point3d as p3 if P: X =  line_EW = rs.AddLine(P - p3(10,0,0), P + p3(10,0,0)) X.append(line_EW) line_NS =rs.AddLine(P - p3(0,10,0), P + p3(0,10,0)) X.append(line_NS) line_UD =rs.AddLine(P - p3(0,0,10), P + p3(0,0,10)) X.append(line_UD)
You can also download the readily-made file. compiling.gh (2.7 KB)
1.5. The code works in procedural mode. We switch to SDK mode.
1.5.1. Click the jigsaw puzzle icon and switch to GH_Component SDK Mode.
1.6. A few adjustments are necessary to make our code robust. The automatic conversion, though, will work out-of-the-box most of the times or will give a good idea about a starting point. Remember to declare more component _def_s, rather than nesting all your functions inside the RunScript function. This will improve runtime behavior.
1.7. We draw this icon in an image processor.
We should draw a 24x24 pixel icon and save it, as best practice, as PNG. We use a transparent background and some good antialiasing if possible.
1.8. We apply the image. Drag-and-drop of the image on top of the component will work.
1.8.1. This is the appearance of the component after applying the image.
If the option is grayed out, you need to remove the “out” output. Printing should not have effects in compiled components.
1.9.1. Let the "magic" begin.
1.10. We still need to set a few details. This form should pop-up. Particularly important is the Guid. If we use the same Guid from an old version of our add-on, we will replace its behavior once the file is swapped and the new assembly is loaded. However, we need to delete the old version of the add-on first. Grasshopper uses Guids to uniquely identify component types.
1.10.1. We need to write down or select the Category, the Subcategory, give the component a Name and a Nickname.
1.11. You will be prompted a save location. The default is also the automatically-watched folder of Grasshopper. Saving here will cause the assembly to be immediately loaded.
1.12. If we did not modify the defaults, the assembly will be placed in the Libraries folder, and automatically loaded into the Grasshopper ribbon. We created our first GHPY file!
A few notes on this name:
- Axes is the name of the assembly
- There is an underscore, and then the assembly ID follows
You can remove the assembly ID, but this is the full name of the module that IronPython will load:
Axes_7af034972e964ca4b11ac1b9209267f7. This long name ensures that no other add-on or module mistakenly uses your same name. You can rename this part to anything that pleases you. However, this ID will always be the ID by which Grasshopper identifies your add-on. You should write it down or you can discover it again later.
Ready downloads for part #1
- compiling.gh (2.7 KB) Component in procedural mode.
- compiling-sdk.gh (2.7 KB) Component in Grasshopper SDK mode.
2. Advanced compiling: multiple components, projects with modules, updating
Sometimes, there is a need of a setup that is more advanced than one component, as in #1 on this page.
We will now cover the creation of an update to the assembly above, making sure that it loads the previous component, and we will add a new “battery” as well, that uses functionality from another private module. This should cover a larger ground of user cases.
2.1. Using the code from the component above, we choose the other option, copy compilable code.
2.2. We get the same panel as in 1.10, but this time it will copy the result to the clipboard.
2.3. We get the same panel as in 1.10, but this time it will copy the result to the clipboard.
2.4. We paste the result from the clipboard into a new _EditPythonScript form. We can remove docstrings, because they are no longer needed. Their content was copied by the wizard into the Grasshopper SDK instantiation code. We save this file as
Axes.py, in a new, empty folder.
2.5. We also create two new Python files:
The content of
main.py is then:
import clr clr.CompileModules("Axes.p188.8.131.52.ghpy", "Axes.py", "Axes_helper.py")
2.6. The content of
Axes_helper.py is then:
import rhinoscriptsyntax as rs class SphereArtist(object): def __init__(self, radius): self.radius = radius def Draw(self, location): """Retuns new spheres""" return rs.AddSphere(location, self.radius)
2.7. We then follow the instructions from 2.1 to 2.3, with this code:
import Axes_helper class MyComponent(component): def __init__(self): self.artist = Axes_helper.SphereArtist(5) def RunScript(self, P): return self.artist.Draw(P)
It will again create a large class with more boilerplate code: the wizard takes care of every need of the Grasshopper SDK. We then add the result to
2.8. In total, we have two components, and one assembly information class. They need to have different names, otherwise, the Python interpreter will override one declaration with the other. All component declarations need to be in the file which is the second argument to the
###This is the folder to be compiled at this point:
compiling_display.zip (7.9 KB)
We run the
main.py file, and we get a new
axes.p184.108.40.206.ghpy file. This contains our entire code, in compiled instructions. HURRAY!
2.8.2. Our compiled file.
2.9. To have Grasshopper load this, we can copy this file to the Grasshopper Components Folder. Open Grasshopper, then go to File -> Special Folders -> Components Folder. Move the file there. Immediately, Grasshopper will load this file and we will be ready to use our new components.
Axes.p220.127.116.11.ghpy (34 KB)
Some few last words of caution:
- Remember to always save your source code in the original form! It is really difficult to get it back once compiled.
- This is new functionality in Rhino WIP. It can change and you might need to re-compile.