In principle, yes it’s possible. Because the plot consists of curves, text objects, and coloured regions, and those are all possible to make with Grasshopper. For those colours you’ll need to create a mesh with per-vertex colours, as creating (and displaying) bitmaps is not possible, at least without some plug-in.
As for things like iso-curves (your picture on the right), it’s almost the exact same approach. You create a flat, ring-shaped mesh, but instead of assigning colours to the vertices, you instead assign a z-coordinate. You now have a 3d mesh whose elevation equals the value. You must then contour or slice this mesh at appropriate elevations and project the resulting intersection curves back onto the plane.
The hardest part in all this may be the parsing of your original data. How is it formatted?
The original data is formatted in excel and each data point is linked to points which are labeled 1-180 which are given x, y, z coordinates (really only the y and z are needed since the x is constant).
As for the plot on the left hand side the points are based on the x, y, z coordinates which are assigned in array function such as polar array offset based on a diameter such like these points (5 circles * 36 points each) :