I would like to know if there is a way to use a Grasshopper tool to plot a color scheme like the figure below in curves or surfaces.
Not on surfaces no, that would require texture mapping and texture drawing, neither of which is part of standard Grasshopper. You can however assign colours to individual mesh vertices. Do note that the picture you posted seems to have sharp transitions between colour bands, whereas regular vertex colouring always results in smooth gradient across the triangle interiors of a mesh.
As for curves… sort of possible. You cannot assign different colours to different parts of the same curve, but you can chop a curve up into small segments and colour each segment individually.