The thing here is that the pen mode, which you are using to try to by-pass make2D, is a screen display mode, whereas make2D produces vectors.
You will likely get a much cleaner result from a vector drawing, because it doesnt depend on your display for its printed output.
Depending on what your final output is going to be, you might be able to get a good enough result from pen mode by trying the following:
Firstly set your anti-alias to the max your computer can handle (options/view/openGL). Then, simply print the screen with the viewcapture-to-file comand, and follow up by assembling the images you grab in photoshop or other related software.
You might also print from rhino to an image file - set the resolution to a high number like 800 or 1200.
Open the image in photoshop, reduce the image to something acceptable, run auto-levels @ 50%, maybe un-sharp mask and then print or otherwise export the image from there.
Attached is a make2D pdf of your example file, and an image that was treated as above.
test_2.pdf (5.3 KB)