Ok, did a little experimenting using your recommendation. I unjoined the tooth profile curve and then polar array just the top parts of it to create this:
I selected them all and used Join and get a single surface. I thought I should use the surface edit tools like Match or Merge but neither worked.
Now, I actually intend to have a flat bottom (the “disk” you see) instead of the tapered bottom in my original post. This seems to be getting me closer to that. I also polar array copied the bottom edge to create the 43 sided figure you see in the drawing and joined them. Oddly that was an open curve. So I closed the curve and then used Patch to create a surface for the bottom:
But now I need to figure out how to close it all up as a solid.