You want to turn on layers in a Detail view, right?
If you activate the Detail viewport (double click), this extra column of bulbs ‘Detail On’ will appear in the layer panel. It might be in the off somewhere, but it’s there.
Is this what you are looking for?
If no Detail is active, there’s an extra column ‘Layout On’. This is for objects placed directly on the Layout (not inside a Detail).
Might be off topic, but: be aware that the ‘main’ on/off-toggle (left column) will override the ‘local’ ones. That’s the reason why it is so easy to f up the content of a Detail view - by just turning layers on/off in the model space, which you normally do when working. There’s a lengthy debate about this. Hope there will be some other strategy regarding this in the near future. It’s needed. Really.