In my field, we typically call this 3D machining. You most often see those surfaces in CNC routed panels, where the machines aren’t working from a textured mesh but generated curves the cutting bit will follow in 3D, leaving those grooves. Different bits leave different grooves.
It’s possible to simulate that cutting process in Grasshopper using Pipe on curves and Solid Difference on a base/block but that will becoming increasingly slow as you add complexity. A CAM software can do a much better job of simulating cuts, and some (like RhinoCAM) will let you export the cut mesh.
Below is an example of that, and an exported mesh from the simulation I 3D printed.