In the geometry from voronoi/facet dome functions, I often find very ‘tight’ places where an edge become super short. This breaks rhino/grasshopper’s fillets (I want to fillet all edges on the geometry) of course but also for software like solid works that are ‘better’ at fillets (but still aren’t good at handling super short edges/vertices that are close to each other).

Is there a way to require that the length of the edges from each surface of the voronoi/facet dome functions are at least of a certain value?

Have you looked at Lloyd’s Algorithm?
If you’re creating your Voronoi using random populate points, by using the centroids of each resulting cell and performing another Voronoi based on those points, the product is a more even distribution of areas and edge lengths. You can continue the process indefinitely and it will converge.