How can i accomplish this tangent behavior with two other objects?
My objective is to create a curve from the origin, to the intersection of the two circles, moving around the top of the smaller circle, ending at the intersection with the smaller circle and the line.

You could use snapping (Osnap) with two knots, a knot & intersection, Any point (near) the line of one object, to the intersection, but easiest would be knot to knot and then rotate around the center of either circle to align them the way you want

Use the circle command. Click the Tangent option. Select the curves that your circle should be tangent to. When prompted for the third tangent, click the Radius option and type the radius value, enter.