Scientific papers/ Mathematical equations used in solvers

Hey. I was wondering if there are any scientific papers published by the creators of grasshopper regarding the equations/ simulations involved in the physics used in solvers.

If not a scientific paper, can I get any resources which gives mathematical insights on the solver and other constraints such as Length component(what is the relation of strength parameter with real life young’s modulus). And other constraints like strength in fold angle, coplanar etc…
It’d be great if there are some mathematical equations to represent them.

You can read the code that is inside most of the goals here: