Signals and Units¶
Many commands allow you to specify arguments in terms of wellknown physical quantities. This page gives an overview of each quantity and its unit.
Time¶
Angles and angular motion¶
angle: deg¶
All angles are measured in degrees (deg). One full rotation corresponds to 360 degrees.
For example, the angle values of a Motor
or
the GyroSensor
are expressed in degrees.
rotational speed: deg/s¶
Rotational speed, or angular velocity describes how fast something rotates, expressed as the number of degrees per second (deg/s).
For example, the rotational speed values of a Motor
or the
GyroSensor
are expressed in degrees
per second.
While we recommend working with degrees per second in your programs, you can use the following table to convert between commonly used units.
deg/s 
rpm 

1 deg/s = 
1 
1/6=0.167 
1 rpm = 
6 
1 
rotational acceleration: deg/s/s¶
Rotational acceleration, or angular acceleration describes how fast the rotational speed changes. This is expressed as the change of the number of degrees per second, during one second (deg/s/s). This is also commonly written as \(deg/s^2\).
For example, you can adjust the rotational acceleration setting of a Motor
to change how smoothly or
how quickly it reaches the constant speed set point.
Distance and linear motion¶
distance: mm¶
Distances are expressed in millimeters (mm) whenever possible.
For example, the distance value of the UltrasonicSensor
is measured in millimeters.
While we recommend working with millimeters in your programs, you can use the following table to convert between commonly used units.
mm 
cm 
inch 

1 mm = 
1 
0.1 
0.0394 
1 cm = 
10 
1 
0.394 
1 inch = 
25.4 
2.54 
1 
dimension: mm¶
Dimensions are expressed in millimeters (mm), just like distances.
For example, the diameter of a wheel is measured in millimeters.
speed: mm/s¶
Linear speeds are expressed as millimeters per second (mm/s).
For example, the speed of a robotic vehicle is expressed in mm/s.
linear acceleration: mm/s/s¶
Linear acceleration describes how fast the speed changes. This is expressed as the change of the millimeters per second, during one second (deg/s/s). This is also commonly written as \(mm/s^2\).
For example, you can adjust the acceleration setting of a
DriveBase
to change how
smoothly or how quickly it reaches the constant speed set point.
linear acceleration: m/s/s¶
As above, but expressed in meters per second squared: \(m/s^2\). This is a more practical unit for large values such as those given by an accelerometer.
Approximate and relative units¶
percentage: %¶
Some signals do not have specific units. They range from a minimum (0%) to a maximum (100%). Specifics type of percentages are relative distances or brightness.
Another example is the sound volume, which ranges from 0% (silent) to 100% (loudest).
relative distance: %¶
Some distance measurements do not provide an accurate value with a specific unit, but they range from very close (0%) to very far (100%). These are referred to as relative distances.
For example, the distance value of the InfraredSensor
is a relative distance.
brightness: %¶
The perceived brightness of a light is expressed as a percentage. It is 0% when the light is off and 100% when the light is fully on. When you choose 50%, this means that the light is perceived as approximately half as bright to the human eye.
Force and torque¶
force: N¶
Force values are expressed in newtons (N).
While we recommend working with newtons in your programs, you can use the following table to convert to and from other units.
mN 
N 
lbf 

1 mN = 
1 
0.001 
\(2.248 \cdot 10^{4}\) 
1 N = 
1000 
1 
0.2248 
1 lbf = 
4448 
4.448 
1 
torque: mNm¶
Torque values are expressed in millinewtonmeter (mNm) unless stated otherwise.
Electricity¶
voltage: mV¶
Voltages are expressed in millivolt (mV).
For example, you can check the voltage of the battery.
current: mA¶
Electrical currents are expressed in milliampere (mA).
For example, you can check the current supplied by the battery.
energy: J¶
Stored energy or energy consumption can be expressed in Joules (J).
power: mW¶
Power is the rate at which energy is stored or consumed. It is expressed in milliwatt (mW).
Ambient environment¶
frequency: Hz¶
Sound frequencies are expressed in Hertz (Hz).
For example, you can choose the frequency of a beep to change the pitch.
temperature: °C¶
Temperature is measured in degrees Celcius (°C). To convert to degrees Fahrenheit (°F) or Kelvin (K), you can use the following conversion formulas:
\(^{\circ}\kern1pt\!F =\kern1pt^{\circ}\kern1pt\!C \cdot \frac{9}{5} + 32\).
\(K =\kern1pt^{\circ}\kern1pt\!C + 273.15\).